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Glossary of Terms

Selectable Markers

ANR1anisomycin resistance
CHX1cycloheximide resistance: Located on Chromosome 1R.
CMP1mitochondrial chloramphenicol resistance: Previously called Cam or CAR.
FAR2-fluoroadenosine resistance
GAL12-deoxygalactose resistance: Galactokinase mutant located on Chromosome 1R.
HGR1hygromycin resistance: Located on Chromosome 2L.
MPR16-methyl purine resistance: Located on Chromosome 2R.
ORY1oryzalin resistance
PMR1paromomycin resistance: Located on Chromosome 2L.
TXS1paclitaxel (taxol) sensitivity: Wild type is resistant.
VBL1vinblastine resistance

Alphabetical List of Known Genes

ATU1alpha tubulin 1
AUX3unspecified auxotroph: Located on Chromosome 4.
AUX5unspecified auxotroph: Located on Chromosome 2L.
AUX6unspecified auxotroph: Located on Chromosome 4L.
AUX8unspecified auxotroph: Located on Chromosome 4.
AUX9unspecified auxotroph: Located on Chromosome 4R.
BCD1broadened cortical domains: Mutation of this gene brings about a broadening of oral and CVP domains. It was originally thought to be non-temperature sensitive, but it is capable of expressing an extreme phenotype at 39 degrees. Homozygotes cannot complete conjugation. Located on Chromosome 3R.
BIG1big: The mutation increases the size of cells, number of ciliary rows, and size of oral apparatus. Ciliary rows are disorganized, and 10-20% of oral apparatuses are abnormal, with extra membranelles common. Chromosome location is unknown.
BTU1beta tubulin 1
BTU2beta tubulin 2
CDAAcell-division-arrest: Temperature-sensitive mutations fail to form a fission zone at 39 degrees, and end up as irregular monsters; originally published as mo1. On Chromosome 4R, localized to a specific macronuclear chromosome.
CDAC cell division arrest: Mutations bring about temperature-sensitive failure to complete cytokinesis, accompanied by cell elongation. In some alleles this phenotype is also cold-sensitive. Originally published as mo3. Chromosome location is unknown.
CDADcell-division-arrest: Temperature-sensitive mutations cause delayed cell division arrest after shift to 39 degrees; posterior daughter tends to shift anteriorly, forming irregular doublets. Originally published as mo6. Located on chromosome 5.
CDAEcell-division-arrest: Temperature-sensitive mutations cause incomplete fission-zone formation at 39 degrees, with arrest in late-cytokinesis, with the new oral apparatus often abnormal and frequently wedged within the arrested furrow. Originally published as mo8. Chromosome location is unknown.
CDAFcell-division-arrest: Temperature-sensitive mutations cause late fission arrest with failure of subdivision of some ciliary rows (39 degrees); tend to form elongated chains and some monsters. Originally published as mo12. Chromosome location is unknown.
CDAGcell-division-arrest: Temperature-sensitive mutations cause late fission arrest and varied membranellar abnormalities at 39-40 degrees. Pleiotropic and incompletely penetrant. Chromosome location is unknown.
CDAHcell-division-arrest: Temperature-sensitive mutations cause fission block, and at an extreme a failure to form a fission zone, with anterior migration of the oral primordium within a sub-surface vesicle (39 degrees). Located on chromosome 5.
CDAIcell-division-arrest: Temperature-sensitive mutations cause unequal fission-arrest ("hammer-head") following an anterior sliding of the oral primordium on the cell surface (at 39 degrees). Chromosome location is unknown.
CDAJcell division arrest: ts mutations cause a fission arrest at 39 degrees, with a considerable amount of associated bending and buckling of ciliary rows. Chromosome location is unknown.
CDAKcell-division-arrest: This temperature-sensitive mutation causes an unequal fission-arrest with a diagonal and incomplete fission zone, leading to a much smaller anterior daughter, usually arrested in fission. Chromosome location is unknown.
CHP1temperature sensitive cell cycle, heat shock, and phosphorylation defect: Defective in heat shock response
CNA1centromere associated H3 histone
CON1conical cell shape: The mutation brings about conical phenootype with broad posterior end; oral primordium forms near the posterior end of the cell, and the posterior daughter cell is smaller than the anterior daughter. In a mixed D/B strain genetic background. Originally published as co. Located on Chromosome 4L.
CON2conical cell shape: The mutation brings about conical cell shape; expression slightly more pronounced at 39 degrees than at 28 degrees. Division products are equal in size. Chromosome location is unknown.
DBL1doublet-former: The mutation causes variable proclivity to form regular homopolar doublets. Penetrance is highly variable. Chromosome location is unknown.
DCC1defective in ciliogenesis and cytokinesis: Temperature sensitive mutation
DISAdisorganized cortex: The mutation brings about a disorganization of ciliary rows that is more extreme the higher the temperature; cell division nonetheless is nearly normal. Located on Chromosome 5.
DISDdisorganized cortex: The mutation brings about disorganized ciliary rows at 39-40 degrees C; also reduced number of ciliary rows. Chromosome location is unknown.
DOA2defective oral apparatus: The temperature-sensitive mutation causes gradual degeneration of the oral apparatus, frequent oral replacement, rounding of the cell, and division blockage at 39 degrees. Chromosome location is unknown.
DRH1dicer related helicase
DYH6dynein heavy chain 6
DYH7dynein heavy chain 7
EJA1enhancer of janus: This allele increases expression of the partially-reversed oral apparatus in homozygous janA cells. Located on Chromosome 3.
ELO1elongated: Mutant cells are elongated, with unequal cell division yielding smaller posterior division products. The phenotype is evident at 28 degrees but more extreme at 39 degrees. Chromosome location is unknown.
EXO1secretory mutant: Located on Chromosome 5.
EXO3secretory mutant: Located on Chromosome 3.
EXOA1secretory mutant: Located on Chromosome 4L.
EXOB1secretory mutant: Located on Chromosome 4L.
FAT2fat cell body: Formerly known as FATB. Mutants are somewhat pudgy but otherwise completely normal. Chromosome location is unknown.
FAT4fat cell body: Formerly known as FATD. Mutants have a rounded cell shape, but otherwise completely normal. Located on chromosome 5.
FER1iron requiring auxotroph: Located on Chromosome 4R.
GFPgreen fluorescent protein
GPCR3G protein-coupled receptor 3
GPCR6G protein-coupled receptor 6
GPCR8G protein-coupled receptor 8
GTU1gamma tubulin 1
HHO1histone H1
HHT1histone H3.1
HHT2histone H3.2
HHT3histone H3.3
HHT4histone H3.4
HMGBhigh mobility group B
HMGChigh mobility group C
HPO1hypoangular: These mutations bring about a complex phenotype with contractile vacuole pores abnormally close to the oral apparatus, and clockwise slippage of oral primordia. Other patterning defects appear at high temperature: hpo1-1 and hpo1-4 have weak expression at 28 degrees and very strong expression at 39 degrees; hpo1-2 and hpo1-3 have moderate expression at 28 degrees and somewhat stronger expression at 39 degrees. hpo1-1 originally published as hpo1; hpo1-2 originally published as hpo2; hpo1-3 originally published as hpo3. Located on Chromosome 3R.
HTA3histone H2A.Z: Also called histone hv1.
HTAYhistone H2A.Y
JANAjanus: These mutations bring a "janus" phenotype to expression, with partially reversed oral apparatus on the dorsal surface and two contractile-vacuole pore sets on one side of the cell. Flattened cell shape. Not temperature sensitive. Depends on a gene-specific enhancer (eja1) for maximal expression. Homozygotes cannot complere conjugation. janA-1 originally published as jan. Located on Chromosome 3R.
JANBjanus: The temperature-sensitive mutation expresses a "janus" phenotype: partially reversed oral apparatus on the dorsal surface; two contractile-vacuole pore sets. Located on Chromosome 2.
JANCjanus: Mutations bring about a strong "janus" phenotype: partially reversed oral apparatus on the dorsal surface; two contractile-vacuole pore sets. Flattened cell shape. Not temperature sensitive. Homozygotes can complere conjugation normally., Located on Chromosome 1R.
LKN1low kinety (ciliary-row) number: Mutations bring about thinner cells with a reduced number of ciliary rows combined with a reduced fidelity in transmission of pre-existing row numbers, probably owing to interruptions and irregularities in the rows. Chromosome location is unknown.
MAT1mating type potentialities: Located on Chromosome 2L.
MLHmicronucleus linker histone
MPAaltered membranellar pattern: The variant allele brings about abnormal oral apparatuses arising during oral replacement as a consequence of incomplete joining of two membranellar subfields. Not temperature-sensitive. Chromosome location is unknown.
MPBaltered membranellar-pattern: The mutation brings about variable oral abnormalities affecting both the membranelles and undulating membrane, with much higher expression at 39 degrees than at 29 degrees. Located on chromosome 5.
MPCaltered membranellar-pattern: Mutations cause the formation of a fourth membranelle in the oral apparatus. Penetrance is higher at 39 degrees than at 28 degrees. Located on Chromosome 3L.
MPDaltered membranellar-pattern: Mutations express a temperature-sensitive formation of four or five well-formed membranelles in the oral apparatus. The cells become long and slender. Located on Chromosome 3R.
MPFaltered membranellar-pattern: The temperature-sensitive mutation results in short and multiple membranelles, and a characteritically shortened undulating membrane, all expressed at restrictive temperature (39 degrees) only. Chromosome location is unknown.
MPGaltered membranellar-pattern: The mutation brings about a "trihymena" form, with non-conditional formation of two instead of three membranelles in the oral apparatus. Located on Chromosome 4.
MPHaltered membranellar-pattern: The mutation brings about a "trihymena" form, with non-conditional formation of two instead of three membranelles in the oral apparatus, at a somewhat lower frequency than mpG-1. Chromosome location is unknown.
MTT1Cd-inducible metallothionein gene
MTT2Cu-inducible metallothionein gene
MUM1misaligned undulating membrane: The mutation shows non-temperature-sensitive fragmentation of the undulating membrane. Chromosome location is unknown.
OAD1outer arm deficient: Temperature sensitive mutation affecting assembly of the outer dynein arm into cilia.
PDD2programmed DNA degradation protein 2
PDD3programmed DNA degradation protein 3
PIG4tyrosine dependent pigment producer: Located on Chromosome 3.
PSMApseudomacrostome: Mutations bring about an elongated phenotype with development of large oral-replacement or misplaced cell division oral primordia. All alleles are temperature sensitive, but to varying degrees. Located on chromosome 5.
PSMBpseudomacrostome: The pleiotropic temperature sensitive mutation brings about an elongated phenotype with development of large oral-replacement or misplaced pre-cell-division oral primordia, with smaller posterior daughter cells. Lower penetrance than psmA1 and psmA3. Located on Chromosome 4L.
PSMCpseudomacrostome: The mutation brings about an elongated phenotype with development of large oral-replacement or misplaced cell division oral primordia, especially in rich medium at 39 degrees. Located on chromosome 5.
PSMDpseudomacrostome: The pleiotropic mutation brings about an elongated phenotype with development of large oral-replacement or misplaced cell division oral primordia, especially in rich medium at 39 degrees; also frequent abnormal internal organization of oral structures, and fission arrest. Located on chromosome 3R.
RMM1rDNA maturation or maintenance mutation: cis-acting elements affecting control of rDNA replication. Located on Chromosome 2L.
RMM10rDNA maturation or maintenance mutation: cis-acting elements affecting control of rDNA replication.
RMM11rDNA maturation or maintenance mutation: cis-acting elements affecting control of rDNA replication.
RMM12rDNA maturation or maintenance mutation: cis-acting elements affecting control of rDNA replication.
RMM13rDNA maturation or maintenance mutation: cis-acting elements affecting control of rDNA replication.
RMM5rDNA maturation or maintenance mutation: cis-acting elements affecting control of rDNA replication.
RMM7rDNA maturation or maintenance mutation: cis-acting elements affecting control of rDNA replication.
RMM8rDNA maturation or maintenance mutation: cis-acting elements affecting control of rDNA replication.
RMM9rDNA maturation or maintenance mutation: cis-acting elements affecting control of rDNA replication.
RSEB1immobilization antigen regulator: Located on Chromosome 5.
RSEC1immobilization antigen regulator: Located on Chromosome 4L.
RSED1immobilization antigen regulator: Located on Chromosome 5.
SCR1screwy: The mutation causes ciliary rows to be helically wound around the cell. Chromosome location is unknown. This gene was published under the name TWI1, and later renamed SCR1 to avoid confusion with the piwi-homologue that had previously been named TWI1.
SERH1immobilization antigen structural locus: Located on Chromosome 4L.
SQT1squat: The mutant is shortened, with an ovoid shape. Not temperature-sensitive. Chromosome location is unknown.
THY1thymidine auxotroph: Located on Chromosome 1.
TS10temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 5.
TS101temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 1R.
TS102temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 3L.
TS103temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 3R.
TS104temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 3R.
TS105temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 5.
TS106temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 3.
TS107temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 5.
TS108temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 5.
TS109temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 5.
TS11temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 4R.
TS11temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 5.
TS110temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 5.
TS112temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 5.
TS114temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 5.
TS12temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 1.
TS14temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 1R.
TS15temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 5.
TS16temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 4.
TS17temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 1R.
TS18temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 4.
TS19temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 5.
TS20temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 1.
TS21temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 3L.
TS22temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 1.
TS23temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 5.
TS24temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 5.
TS25temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 1.
TS26temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 5.
TS27temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 5.
TS28temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 1.
TS29temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 2L.
TS30temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 5.
TS32temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 3R.
TS33temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 3R.
TS34temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 3R.
TS35temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 2.
TS36temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 2.
TS37temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 2.
TS38temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 2.
TS39temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 2.
TS5temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 1.
TS6temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 1R.
TS7temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 2L.
TS8temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 2L.
TS9temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 4.
TSA1temperature sensitive: Located on Chromosome 3R.
TYR10tyrosine auxotroph: Located on Chromosome 1.
TYR14tyrosine auxotroph: Located on Chromosome 1.
TYR19tyrosine auxotroph: Located on Chromosome 1.
TYR9tyrosine auxotroph: Located on Chromosome 1.
TYRAtyrosine auxotroph: Located on Chromosome 2L.
TYRBtyrosine auxotroph: May be deficient in unconjugated pteridine biosynthesis. Located on Chromosome 2R.
TYRCtyrosine auxotroph: Deficient in phenylalanine hydroxylase. Located on Chromosome 4L.
TYRDtyrosine auxotroph: May be deficient in unconjugated pteridine biosynthesis. Located on Chromosome 2L.
TYREtyrosine auxotroph: Located on Chromosome 1.
UBC2E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme